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Infinitives and –ing forms | شرح قواعد ثاني ثانوي | Traveller3 | الترم الأول | Grammar

شرحنا في الدرس السابق { Passive Voice II }
نشرح في هذا الدرس صيغ المصادر infinitives و صيغ الـ   ing

دعنا نبدأ بالمصدر.
المصدر له نوعان:
1- مصدر كامل full infinitive وهو الفعل خال من أي إضافة لكنه مسبوق بـ  to
2-  مصدر مجرد bare infinitive وهو أيضا الفعل خال من أي إضافة ولا يُسبق بـ to
يعني الفرق بينهما هو to
Infinitives
The full infinitive is used: المصدر الكامل يُستخدم لكل من
• to express purpose.  للتعبير عن هدف.
I went to the post office to post some letters.

• after it + be + adjective (it’s nice, it was stupid, etc.)
It was great to see you after such a long time.

• after certain adjectives:   بعد صفات محددة . مثل الصفات التالية
afraid, surprised, free, happy, ready, sorry.
At last he was free to do what he wanted.

• after too and enough.  
 بعد كلمة too و كلمة enough
Larry is too tired to go jogging today.
It isn’t warm enough to go to the sea yet.

• after certain verbs  بعد أفعال محددة مثل الأفعال التالية
(afford, agree, appear, decide, forget, hope, learn, manage, need, offer, plan, promise, refuse, seem, tend, want, would like, etc.).
I hope to see you again soon.

• after the objects of certain verbs
بعد المفعول به لبعض الأفعال, كالأفعال التالية:
(advise, allow, encourage, invite, order, persuade, teach, tell, etc.)
It was Glen who persuaded me to apply for this job.

• after question words   بعد أدوات السؤال
 (how, what, when, where, etc.)
I don’t know what to do.
The bare infinitive is used:  المصدر المجرد يُستخدمل لكل من
• after modal verbs  بعد الأفعال الشكلية
 (can, may, must, should, etc.).
You should start thinking about your future.

• after the verbs let and make in the Active Voice.
بعد الأفعال let (دع) أو make (يجعل, يصنع) في المبني للمعلوم. 
My parents let me stay up later at weekends.
Our teacher made us retake the test.

• after would rather and had better.
بعد عبارة would rather و had better
I’d rather stay at home today.
You’d better tell me everything you know about this.


-ing forms
The -ing form is used:
• as the subject of a verb.       كـفاعل للفعل
Exercising is a good way of keeping fit.

• after the verb go, indicating physical activities.     بعد الفعل يذهب للإشارة لأنشطة جسدية
We often go fishing in the summer.

• after certain verbs  بعد أفعال محددة كالأفعال التالية
(avoid, enjoy, finish, like, love, hate, imagine, keep, risk, spend (time), suggest, consider, etc.).
Martin suggested going to the museum on Tuesday.

• after certain expressions  بعد تعابير محددة كالتعابير التالية
(be interested in, can’t stand, don’t mind, how about, it’s no use, it’s no good, it’s worth, there’s no point (in), be used to, etc.).
It’s no use trying to do everything yourself. Ask your dad for help.

• after prepositions   بعد حروف الجر كالحروف التالية
 (for, about, without, etc.).
I’m so excited about going to university next year.

Verbs followed by full infinitive and -ing form
أفعال متبوعة بـ مصدر كامل و صيغة ing أيضا 
• Some verbs such as 
  هناك أفعال يمكن أن يأتي بعدها مصدر كامل أو صيغةing  كالأفعال التالية
 start, begin, continue, intend, etc. can be followed by either the full infinitive or the -ing form.
with no difference in meaning.
It started to rain / raining a minute ago.

• Some verbs can be followed by either the full infinitive or the -ing form, but with a difference in meaning
بعض الأفعال يمكن أن تكون متبوعة إما بـ مصدر كامل أو صيغة ing و لكن تعطي معنى مختلف 
remember + -ing form = remember something that has already happened.
I remember visiting Paris in 2004.

remember + full infinitive = remember something before doing it
Did you remember to lock the door before you left?

forget + -ing form = forget something that has already happened
I’ll never forget visiting India.

forget + full infinitive = forget something you are supposed to do.
Tom forgot to tell you that he was going away for the weekend.

جد المزيد من فهرس المواضيع { شرح القاعدات Grammar من كتاب Traveller3 }

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