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Reported Speech (statements) | شرح قواعد ثاني ثانوي | Traveller3 | الترم الأول | Grammar

شرحنا في الدرس السابق { Past Perfect Simple – Past Perfect Progressive }

يا للروعة!! 
هل تعلم أن درست هذه القاعدة في الصف الأول ثانوي,  Traveller 2 ..لذلك لكي توفر علي وعليك الوقت فإني أرجو أن تراجع القاعدة من الرابط التالي ( Reported Speech ) ثم تعود إلى هنا لترى ما أضافوه لكم في هذا الجزء.

Reported Speech (Statements)

In Direct Speech, we give the exact words that someone said. The words of the speaker are put in quotation marks.

في الكلام المباشر ، نعطي نفس الكلمات التي قالها أحدهم. نضع كلمات المتحدث بين علامتي تنصيص.

مثال:

Thomas said, Bob is on the phone.

قال توماس ، "بوب على الهاتف".

In Reported Speech, we give the meaning of what someone said, but with some changes and without quotation marks. We use a reporting verb, usually say or tell, followed by that (which can be omitted) and the reported statement.

في الكلام المنقول, نعطي معنى لما قاله شخص ما ، ولكن مع بعض التغييرات وبدون علامات اقتباس. 
 نستخدم فعل النقل مثل: tell أو say ، متبوعًا بـ that (يمكن حذف that ).

مثال:

Thomas said that Bob was on the phone.

قال توماس أن بوب كان على الهاتف.

Note:

• We use say when there is no indirect object.

‘I can’t fix the car,’ he said.

"لا يمكنني إصلاح السيارة" هو قال.

He
said that he couldn’t fix the car.
قال إنه لا يستطيع إصلاح السيارة.

• We use tell when there is an indirect object.

‘I’ll be late, Tom,’ he said.

"سوف أتأخر يا توم"هو قال.
He told Tom he would be late.

أخبر توم بأنه سيتأخر.

• When we change a sentence from Direct to Reported Speech, pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning of the sentence.

‘I like your new bike,’ said Ian.
Ian said that he liked my new bike.

• When a sentence changes from Direct to Reported Speech, tenses, modals and time expressions change as follows:

عندما تتغير جملة من الكلام المباشر إلى المنقول ، فإن لأزمنة وأفعال المودالز و الوقت تتغير على النحو التالي:

Present Simple -->  Past Simple
Ken said, ‘I want to buy a new car.’
Ken said (that) he wanted to buy a new car.

Present Progressive -->  Past Progressive
Alan said, ‘I’m having lunch.’
Alan said he was having lunch.

Past Simple -->  Past Perfect Simple
Lars said, ‘I saw a bear behind the tree.’
Lars said he had seen a bear behind the tree.

Present Perfect Simple -->  Past Perfect Simple
Tim said, ‘I’ve seen the documentary.’
Tim said he had seen the documentary.

Present Perfect Progressive -->  Past Perfect Progressive
Andy said, ‘I’ve been waiting for an hour.’
Andy said he had been waiting for an hour.

will -->  would
Dan said, ‘I’ll call you later.’
Dan said he would call me later.

can -->  could
Mike said, ‘I can show you the way.’
Mike said he could show me the way.

Conditional Sentences Type 1 -->  Conditional

Sentences Type 2

Bob said, ‘If we take a taxi, we’ll get there more quickly.’
Bob said if they took a taxi, they would get there more
quickly.

may -->  might
Paul said, ‘I may go to Brazil.’
Paul said he might go to Brazil.

must -->  had to
Jim said, ‘You must work hard.’
Jim said I had to work hard.

now -->  then
Dad said, ‘I’ll talk to him now!’
Dad said he would talk to him then.

today, tonight --> that day, that night
Tom said, ‘We’re meeting Tim today.’
Tom said they were meeting Tim that day.

yesterday -->  the previous day / the day before
Danny said, ‘I visited my lawyer yesterday.’
Danny said he had visited his lawyer the previous day.

this morning/year, etc. -->  that morning/year, etc.
Mark said, ‘I haven’t eaten anything since this morning.’
Mark said he hadn’t eaten anything since that morning.

here -->  there
Eric said, ‘I saw it here.’
Eric said he had seen it there.

tomorrow -->  the next day / the following day
Andy said, ‘I’m flying to Paris tomorrow.’
Andy said he was flying to Paris the following day.

ago -->  before
Bill said, ‘I bought this car two days ago.’
Bill said he had bought that car two days before.

last week/month, etc. -->  the previous week/month, etc.
the week/month, etc. before
Dave said, ‘I called Derek last week.’
Dave said that he had called Derek the previous week.

next week / month, etc. -->  the following week/ month, etc.
Gary said, ‘I’ll return the book next week.’
Gary said he would return the book the following week.

Note:

These changes cannot be made when the sentence expresses a general truth or the reporting verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect Simple.

هذه التغييرات لا يمكن أن تُصنع عندما تعبر الجملة عن حقيقة عامة أو فعل منقول في الماضي, أو المضارع التام البسيط.

الأمثلة:
‘I enjoy cooking,’ Tom said.
Tom said (that) he enjoys cooking.
‘I will move to Dublin next year,’ Eric says.
Eric says he will move to Dublin next year.

• The Past Perfect and the verbs could, might, should, would and used to do not change in Reported Speech.

• The Past Progressive usually doesn’t change but when it does, it changes to Past Perfect Progressive.

• Conditional Sentences Types 2 and 3 do not change in Reported Speech.

الجُمل الشرطية النوع الثاني والنوع الثالث لا تتغير في الكلام المنقول.

Special Introductory Verbs     أفعال تقديمة خاصة

There are a number of special introductory verbs used in Reported Speech.

هناك عدد من الأفعال التقديمية في الكلام المنقول. 

verb + full infinitive (agree, claim, demand, offer, promise, refuse, threaten, etc.)
الأمثلة:
‘I’ll buy a book for you,’ said Pete to his daughter.
Pete offered to buy a book for his daughter.

verb + object + full infinitive (advise, allow, ask, beg, encourage, forbid, invite, order, permit, remind, warn, etc.)
الأمثلة:

‘You should take better care of yourself, Ian,’ said Gregg. Gregg advised Ian to take better care of himself.

verb + -ing form (accuse sb of, apologise for, admit (to), complain to sb about, deny, insist on, suggest, etc.)
الأمثلة:
‘George lied to me,’ said Steve.
Steve accused George of lying to him.

verb + that clause (admit, agree, claim, complain, exclaim, explain, inform sb, promise, suggest, etc.)

الأمثلة:

‘You never listen to me,’ he said.
He complained that I never listened to him.

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